ВОЕННО-ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЙ ЧАС «ГОРЯЩАЯ ЗЕМЛЯ, РАСПЛАВЛЕННЫЙ МЕТАЛЛ» (к 80-летию со времени первого боевого применения реактивной установки «Катюша»)

«ВЫХОДИЛА НА БЕРЕГ КАТЮША …»

21 июня 1941 года, за день до начала Великой Отечественной войны, на вооружение Рабоче-крестьянской Красной армии была принята боевая машина реактивной артиллерии БМ-13 – легендарная «Катюша», прародительница нынешних реактивных систем залпового огня. Гвардейская «Катюша» «заводила свою песню» до конца Великой Отечественной, а после войны еще несколько десятилетий несла службу в армиях различных государств мира.

Свое название «Катюша» БМ-13 получила по одноименной всенародно любимой песне композитора Матвея Блантера и поэта Михаила Исаковского. Известно, что БМ-13 поначалу именовали «Раисой Сергеевной», расшифровывая сокращение РС (реактивный снаряд). В немецких войсках «Катюши» обычно называли «Сталинскими оргáнами» из-за характерного воя снарядов.

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Один из первых образцов боевой машины «Катюша» в 1941 году
«Катюши» готовятся к бою

БМ-13 предназначалась для массированного уничтожения живой силы и техники противника на большой площади. Первое боевое применение Красной Армией пороховых ракет нового типа относится к боям против японской армии на берегах реки Халхин-Гол. В августе 1939 года группа истребителей И-16 под командованием летчика-испытателя Николая Звонарева впервые применила ракетные снаряды РС-82.

Истребитель И-16 с неуправляемыми реактивными снарядами на борту в районе Халхин-Гола
Капитан летчик-истребитель Николай Иванович Звонарев

Работы по созданию реактивных снарядов начались в нашей стране еще в 1920-х годах. По инициативе известного русского изобретателя Николая Тихомирова была создана Газодинамическая лаборатория Главного артиллерийского управления РККА. После смерти Тихомирова разработку ракетного оружия в СССР возглавляли Борис Петропавловский, Владимир Артемьев, Георгий Лангемак, Борис Слонимер, Иван Клейменов, Иван Гвай, Леонид Шварц и другие. Позже исследования продолжились в Реактивном научно-исследовательском институте (РНИИ), который был организован в 1933 году.

Николай Иванович Тихомиров (1860 — 1930) — русский изобретатель, специалист в области ракетной техники

После успешных испытаний 21 июня 1941 года БМ-13 была принята на вооружение, началось формирование первых батарей. Система «Катюши» с боевым расчетом от пяти до семи человек позволяла осуществлять залп всем зарядом (16 ракет) за 7-10 секунд. Дальнобойность боевой машины составляла около 8,5 тысяч метров. Первоначально системы БМ-13 монтировались на тяжелый трехосный грузовик ЗИС-6. Потом для этой цели стали использоваться американские «Студебекеры», поставлявшиеся в СССР по ленд-лизу, и советский грузовик ЗИС-151.

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Одна из первых батарей БМ 13 «Катюша» в июле 1941 года
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«Катюша»-на платформе американского грузовика «Студебекера»

Первое боевое применение БМ-13 в годы Великой Отечественной войны состоялось 14 июля 1941 года близ железнодорожной станции г. Орша (ныне Белоруссия). Батарея под командованием капитана Ивана Флерова, имевшего за плечами опыт советско-финской войны, залповым огнем уничтожила скопление живой вражеской силы и боевой техники. В документах было зафиксировано: «Нанесли удар по фашистским эшелонам на железнодорожном узле Орша. Результаты отличные. Сплошное море огня».

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«Катюша» в районе железнодорожного узла Орша в июле 1941 года

А вот строки из дневника начальника немецкого генштаба Франца Гальдера: «Русские применили батарею с небывалым числом орудий. Снаряды фугасно-зажигательные, но необычного действия. Войска, обстрелянные русскими, свидетельствуют: огневой налет подобен урагану. Снаряды разрываются одновременно. Потери в людях значительные». Моральный эффект от применения реактивных минометов был ошеломляющим.

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Немецкое командование всеми силами пыталось заполучить образцы русского чудо-оружия. За батареей капитана Флерова началась настоящая охота. Советское командование, понимая это, дало четкую установку, – ни одна боевая машина не должна достаться врагу. Этого не допустил и капитан Иван Флеров. 7 октября 1941 года под Вязьмой гитлеровцам удалось окружить его батарею. Будучи тяжелораненым, командир комбат взорвал себя вместе с головной пусковой установкой. В 1942 году ему посмертно был присвоен орден Отечественной войны I степени, а в 1995 году он был удостоен звания Героя России.

Командир первой батареи реактивной артиллерии «Катюш», капитан Иван Андреевич Флеров

Установки БМ-13 были настолько засекречены, что даже запрещалось использовать команды «пли», «огонь», «залп», вместо них звучали: «пой» или «играй». С 1941 по 1944 годы советская промышленность изготовила 30 тысяч пусковых установок различных видов и 12 миллионов снарядов к ним. Ракеты производили даже в блокадном Ленинграде.

Основным преимуществом реактивных установок была высокая маневренность и массированность удара: боевые машины за один залп выпускали большое количество снарядов и за несколько минут покидали огневой рубеж, не подставляясь под ответный огонь противника. Но были у «Катюши» и свои недостатки: низкая точность стрельбы из-за большого рассеивания снарядов, сильное задымление во время залпов, малый эффект против долговременных оборонительных укреплений и бронетехники.

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 «Выходила на берег Катюша… Выходила, песню заводила…» – эти слова уже на протяжении многих десятилетий ассоциируются со знаменитой боевой машиной. И «Катюша» действительно «пела». «При полете реактивных снарядов за счет истечения из ракетного двигателя пороховых газов слышится своеобразный звук. В соответствии с известным эффектом Доплера, по мере удаления снаряда высота звука меняется. При этом возникает подобие мелодии, что отличает залпы «Катюши» от выстрелов артиллерийских орудий. Не спутаешь ни за что», – из интервью сотрудника Центра имени М.В. Келдыша Альберта Гафарова.

Огненные боевые машины «Катюши» в битве за Москву в декабре 1941 года

«Катюша» никого не оставила равнодушным – поднимала боевой дух наших бойцов, сеяла панику и ужас во вражеских рядах. К началу 1945 года на полях сражений действовали отдельные дивизионы, полки, бригады и семь дивизий, вооруженных реактивной артиллерией. Реактивные «Катюши» участвовали на полях всех основных сражений Великой Отечественной войны, дошли до самого Берлина.

Эти боевые установки стали неотъемлемыми символами Великой Победы. Отличительный силуэт военного грузовика с наклонной конструкцией для ракет явился образцом героизма, стойкости и отваги советских солдат и офицеров.

Памятник БМ-13-Катюша в Смоленске

Автор видеоклипа Алексей Иванов

МАТЕРИАЛ ПОДГОТОВИЛА КАШТАНОВА Л. А.

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