ЧАС ПОЗНАНИЙ И ОТКРЫТИЙ «ПЕРВООТКРЫВАТЕЛЬ МИНОЙСКОЙ ЦИВИЛИЗАЦИИ» (к 170-летию со дня рождения английского археолога Артура Джона Эванса)

Артур Джон Эванс (08.07.1851 — 11.07.1941) — легендарный английский археолог и историк, открывший минойскую культуру и предложивший ее периодизацию. Критская цивилизация долгое время считалась легендой из греческих мифов о могучем царе Миносе и его дочери Ариадне, о быкоголовом чудовище Минотавре и знаменитом архитекторе Дедале, построившем загадочный лабиринт. Но существование на Крите древнего государства, которому сами Афины вынуждены были платить унизительную дань, не подтверждалось материально. Серьезным раскопкам мешала взрывоопасная обстановка на острове — с конца 1860-х годов там бесконечной чередой шли восстания местных греков против турецкого ига.

В реальность гомеровской «Илиады» поначалу тоже мало кто верил, пока в начале 1870-х годов немецкий археолог Генрих Шлиман не раскопал Трою, а потом и Микены. В конце века удивительные находки были сделаны в Египте и Малой Азии, но Крит по-прежнему оставался для археологов “terra incognita”.

Немецкий археолог Генрих Шлиман

Человеком, которому суждено было открыть миру древнюю историю Крита, стал археолог Артур Эванс. Его отец сэр Джон Эванс был признанным специалистом в раскопках и нумизматике, основоположником британской антропологии и палеонтологии. После ранней смерти жены сэр Джон сам занимался воспитанием детей, заодно приобщая их к своему хобби. Артур закончил частную школу и поступил в Оксфорд. Во время каникул он много путешествовал, посещая в основном места, связанные с древними памятниками. В 1875 году Артур с братом оказался на Балканах. Регион бурлил, и молодые англичане были увлечены водоворотом революционных событий. Будущий археолог стал собственным корреспондентом «Манчестер Гардиан», но свободное время тратил на изучение местных древностей.

Сэр Джон Эванс — отец Артура Эванса

В Англии 35-летнему Эвансу, предложили стать куратором археологической коллекции Эшмоловского музея — старейшего музея Оксфорда. Он познакомился с самыми известными археологами тех лет: от Флиндеса Питри и Джона Майерса до Генриха Шлимана, которого он навещал в Греции. Но счастливый мир Эванса рухнул, когда скончалась его любимая жена Маргарет. После смерти супруги сэр Артур так и не женился, детей у него не было. Ученый забросил музейную работу и полностью ушел в себя. Лишь несколько лет спустя он сумел собраться и уехал в Грецию, откуда в 1894 году впервые попал на Крит.

Артур Эванс с женой Маргарет

Азарт исследователя постепенно возвращался к Эвансу, и он задумал начать на Крите серьезные раскопки. Особенно его заинтересовал холм неподалеку от столицы острова Ираклиона, где, по уверениям местных жителей, им часто попадались в земле старинные вещицы. О существовании некоей могучей цивилизации бронзового века говорили тогда многие ученые, работавшие в Греции, Египте и Средней Азии.

Город Ираклион в наши дни

Египтолог Флиндерс Питри ломал голову над керамикой, которая была на несколько столетий древнее микенской: «Найдите, кто это сделал, и вы обнаружите древнейшую европейскую цивилизацию», — писал он. В последний год XIX столетия турецкие войска под давлением великих держав покинули Крит, и жители острова обрели долгожданную свободу. Определенную роль в этом сыграл и Эванс: его яркие статьи в поддержку греков способствовали формированию общественного мнения, вынудившего правительство Великобритании выступить за независимость острова.

23 марта 1900 года британский археолог начал раскопки в нескольких километрах от критского города Ираклион. Практически сразу он понял, что имеет дело не с артефактами эллинистической эпохи, а с остатками какой-то совершенно иной, ранее неведомой культуры. Эванс назвал ее Минойской, в честь мифологического царя Миноса.

Ученый вложил свои личные деньги, выкупил весь кносский холм и нанял бригаду землекопов из 30 человек. Уже на третий день Эванс записал в своем дневнике: «Исключительное явление — ничего греческого, ничего римского…». Создать целостную картину удалось, когда был вскрыт значительный по площади участок. Помещения дворца (в несколько этажей) переходили из одного в другое, всего в комплексе их оказалось более трехсот.

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Раскопки Эванса в Кноссе

Эванс нашел остатки каменного водопровода и канализации, великолепную ванную комнату и туалет с системой смыва, залы с колоннами и комнаты с росписями на стенах, ремесленные мастерские с заготовками, кладовые-хранилища и даже каменный царский трон. Цивилизацию Эванс назвал Минойской, в память о легендарном царе Миносе, которого археолог объявил хозяином Кносского дворца.

Кносский дворец
Критский царь Минос
Тронный зал Кносского дворца

В помещениях Эванс обнаружил стоявшие рядами вдоль стен двухметровые глиняные пифосы вместимостью около 185 л каждый. Предназначались они для хранения зерна, оливкового масла, вина, фиников, бобов. Провизии, по подсчетам Эванса, было достаточно, чтобы прокормить город с населением до 80 тысяч человек. Но самыми яркими находками были великолепные росписи — изображения цветов, животных, морских обитателей и людей, игры с быками, спортивные соревнования, портреты, жанровые сцены и просто красивые орнаменты.

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Фрагмент фрески «Процессия» (реконструкция Артура Эванса)

Еще один важный блок находок — таблички с надписями. Эванс и раньше встречал подобные в музейных коллекциях, он считал их «протофиникийскими», но обилие их на Крите однозначно говорило о местном происхождении этого вида письма. Расшифровка критской письменности стала главной задачей Эванса, которую он так и не смог решить.

Таблички с текстами из раскопок Кносса

Сорок лет жизни Эванс посвятил Кносскому дворцу и Минойской цивилизации. Параллельно с раскопками он начал восстанавливать некоторые помещения дворца. Ему помогала чета швейцарских художников-реставраторов Жильеронов, которые и воссоздавали древние настенные рисунки. Подлинники были сняты и помещены в музей в Ираклионе, а рисовали они по построенным и отштукатуренным стенам.

Кносский дворец, входящий в археологический заповедник, стал туристической Меккой острова, его главной достопримечательностью. Каждый год миллионы туристов посещают Крит и обязательно приезжают в Кносский дворец, где их приветствует сэр Артур Эванс (рыцарское звание было даровано ему королем Георгом V в 1911 году), памятник которому поставили благодарные местные жители.

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Эванс стал членом Королевского общества, лауреатом множества премий и званий. Умер ученый 11 июля 1941 года в поместье возле Оксфорда, через три дня после своего 90-летия. Несколькими неделями ранее Крит был захвачен нацистами, музей в Ираклионе сильно пострадал от фашистских бомбардировок, а продолжавшего дело Эванса молодого английского археолога Джона Пендлбери немцы расстреляли.

Сэр Артур Джон Эванс в последние годы жизни

Сегодня мы знаем, что минойская цивилизация складывалась, начиная с VI-V тысячелетий до н. э. и расцвета достигла во II тысячелетии. Дворцовые комплексы были ее опорой, в них трудились ремесленники, жили правители, сюда свозили свой урожай крестьяне. Критяне были великолепными ремесленниками, мореплавателями и торговцами.

Но вопросов всё равно больше, чем ответов. В каких богов верили критяне, почему на острове не найдены храмы и захоронения того времени? Действительно ли Минойская цивилизация погибла после извержения на острове Тирос (сейчас он известен под итальянским названием Санторин)? Возможно, мы узнаем больше, когда удастся расшифровать критское иероглифическое письмо и литерное письмо А, которые пока не поддаются ученым-дешифровщикам.

МАТЕРИАЛ ПОДГОТОВИЛА БЕЛЕНКО М.А.

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