МУЗЕЙНЫЙ ГИД «СОЗДАТЕЛЬ ВОЕННОЙ ГАЛЕРЕИ В ЗИМНЕМ ДВОРЦЕ» (к 240-летию со дня рождения английского художника Джорджа Доу)

… Толпою тесною художник поместил

Сюда начальников народных наших сил,

Покрытых славою чудесного похода

И вечной памятью двенадцатого года.

(А.С. Пушкин «Полководец»)

Так описал Александр Сергеевич Пушкин в своем стихотворении «Полководец» знаменитую Военную галерею Зимнего дворца. Зал Военной славы, спроектированный архитектором Карлом Росси в 1826 году, украсили больше трехсот портретов русских генералов — героев Отечественной войны 1812 года.

Военная галерея в Эрмитаже (рисунок первой половины 19 века)
Военная галерея в наши дни

Среди прославленных полководцев были представлены портреты Кутузова, Барклая-де-Толли, Багратиона, Раевского, Тучковых, Кутайсова, Дохтурова, Ермолова, Неверовского и многих других славных сынов России. Запечатлеть для потомков лица героев войны император Александр I поручил известному в те годы английскому художнику Джорджу Доу.

Петр Иванович Багратион
Николай Николаевич Раевский
Александр Алексеевич Тучков

Со стен Военного зала Эрмитажа на нас смотрят красивые мужественные лица, «полные воинственной отваги», как сказал о них Пушкин. Джордж Доу рисовал размашистыми сочными мазками, писал легко, изящно, виртуозно. Портреты получались живыми, поразительно похожими на оригинал. Художник прекрасно чувствовал объем, цвет, ловил малейшие волнения души и все это быстро переносил на холст.

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Алексей Петрович Ермолов
Матвей Иванович Платов
Василий Орлов-Денисов
Федор Алексеевич Луков

Приглашение иностранного живописца для выполнения почетного заказа государственной важности вызвало негодование у многих представителей художественного мира Санкт-Петербурга. Почему портреты русских полководцев, национальной гордости русской армии, нарисовал по заказу Александра I художник-иностранец, а не русский портретист, каких в России тогда было немало? Достаточно упомянуть таких замечательных художников, как Орест Кипренский, Роман Волков, Василий Тропинин, Петр Соколов.

Василий Андреевич Тропинин (автопортрет)
Орест Адамович Кипренский (автопортрет)

Незадолго до прибытия в Санкт-Петербург Джордж Доу прославился написанием портретов английских генералов, отличившихся в битве при Ватерлоо (среди них — портрет фельдмаршала Артура Веллингтона). Александр I решил создать галерею русских полководцев 1812 года, подобную английской, и для выполнения этой работы пригласил английского портретиста.

Британский полководец Артур Уэлсли Веллингтон

Джордж Доу (George Dawe) родился в Лондоне 8 февраля 1781 года в семье известного гравера. Доу закончил Королевскую Академию художеств, и первые его полотна были написаны на мифические и библейские сюжеты. Затем художник создает портреты коронованных особ и участников сражения с армией Наполеона при Ватерлоо. Имя Джорджа Доу становится известным не только в родной Англии, но и в других европейских государствах.

Портрет Джорджа Доу (художник Томас Райт)

Но истинную известность английский художник приобрел в России, где он творил десять лет. Император Александр I предложил ему за щедрое вознаграждение создать портретную галерею русских генералов. Доу, не раздумывая, сразу дал согласие.

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Джордж Доу. Российский император Александр I

По воспоминаниям современников, художник работал на одном дыхании, быстро и уверенно, он мгновенно схватывал суть образа. Ему позировали живые герои Отечественной войны 1812 года, а портреты погибших и умерших к тому времени он писал по сохранившимся в семьях изображениям и рассказам очевидцев.

Джордж Доу в окружении семьи (художник В.А. Голике)

Вскоре художник понял, что исполнить гигантский труд в кратчайшие сроки ему не по силам, и тогда он привлек в помощь молодых даровитых художников. Среди них особенно отличались русский художник немецкого происхождения Василий Голике и крепостной костромской живописец Александр Поляков. Доподлинно известно, что с натуры писал только сам маэстро. Основной работой его помощников были аксессуары: мундиры, ордена, наградные ленты, пояса, эполеты и только иногда — части фигуры, лица и рук.

Художник Василий Александрович Голике

Творения английского художника заняли особое место в поэтическом мире А.С. Пушкина. Наш поэт был поклонником живописи Джорджа Доу, он высоко ценил его профессионализм. «Дивный карандаш», «художник быстроокий», «своею кистию свободной и широкой», «поэтический портрет»… Все это Пушкин сказал о Джордже Доу.

Александр Сергеевич Пушкин (художник О.А. Кипренский)

Под влиянием творчества Доу появился «военный цикл» стихов Пушкина: «Бородинская годовщина», «Гусар», «Д.А. Давыдову», «Художнику» и «Полководец». Последнее стихотворение В.Г. Белинский называл «одним из величайших созданий гениального Пушкина». Самое пристальное внимание нашего поэта привлекал портрет Барклая-де-Толли:

«… Но в сей толпе суровой

Один меня влечет всех больше.

С думой новой

Всегда остановлюсь пред ним

и не свожу

С него моих очей. Чем долее гляжу,

Тем более томим я грустию

Тяжелой».

Поэт первым в России громко возвысил свой голос в защиту опального фельдмаршала и поднял Михаила Барклая-де-Толли на один пьедестал со «скалою русской славы» М.И. Кутузовым. «Здесь зачинатель Барклай, а здесь совершитель Кутузов …», — писал Пушкин.

Д. Доу. Михаил Илларионович Кутузов
Д. Доу. Михаил Барклай-де-Толли

День 25 декабря 1826 года стал настоящим триумфом для английского художника: в Зимнем дворце Санкт-Петербурга состоялось официальное открытие «Военной галереи». Присутствующим были представлены 332 портрета героев Отечественной войны 1812 года. Части войск петербургского гарнизона торжественным маршем прошли по площади Зимнего дворца. Самоотверженный труд английского художника был отмечен высокой наградой Российской империи. Он получил звание «первого портретного живописца Его Императорского Величества».

Открытие Военной галереи в Зимнем дворце
Александр I в мастерской Дж. Доу в Зимнем дворце (1826)

В 1828 году Джордж Доу уехал в Англию, где оставался в течение нескольких месяцев. В феврале следующего года Доу вернулся в Петербург, чтобы закончить написание нескольких портретов для Военной галереи. Резко ухудшившееся состояние здоровья заставило 48-летнего художника вновь уехать в Лондон, где он умер от легочной недостаточности 15 октября 1829 года. Доу похоронен в Лондоне в часовне-скрипте собора Святого Павла.

Собор Святого Павла в Лондоне

Знакомство Джорджа Доу с военной историей России привело его к осознанию величия культа боевого русского офицера. Для русских полководцев было честью умереть на поле боя за матушку Россию. В портретных образах генералов-победителей отчетливо прослеживаются черты доблести, мужества и решимости победить ненавистного врага, ступившего на русскую землю. Военная галерея Зимнего дворца — это живая память о славной плеяде Героев Отечественной войны 1812 года.

МАТЕРИАЛ ПОДГОТОВИЛА КАШТАНОВА Л.А.

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