ЧИТАТЕЛЬСКАЯ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ «СОЗДАТЕЛЬ ЖАНРА ТЕАТРАЛЬНОЙ СКАЗКИ» (к 300-летию со дня рождения итальянского драматурга Карло Гоцци)

ЧАСТЬ I. ЛИТЕРАТУРНЫЙ ПОРТРЕТ «РЫЦАРЬ ИТАЛЬЯНСКОЙ ДРАМАТУРГИИ»

«Стремление к совершенству я отношу как к нравственности, так и к искусству писать» (Карло Гоцци).

Карло Гоцци  (Carlo Gozzi, 13.12.1720 — 4.04.1806) — гениальный итальянский драматург и поэт, вошедший в историю театра как создатель жанра театральной сказки (фьябы). Гоцци был самым деятельным защитником национальных традиций комедии дель арте в венецианском театре. В его произведениях торжествуют высокие чувства, восхваляются отвага человека в борьбе за благородные цели.

Гоцци обожал народную поэзию, сказку, комедию масок, называл ее гордостью Италии. «Искусное построение пьесы, правильное развитие ее действия и гармонический стиль достаточны, чтобы придать детскому фантастическому сюжету …, полную иллюзию правды и приковать к нему внимание всякого человека», — так драматург потом напишет в своих мемуарах.

Граф Карло Гоцци был уроженцем Венеции, где он прожил всю свою жизнь. Он происходил из старинного, но сильно обедневшего аристократического рода. Семья Гоцци, насчитывал одиннадцать детей, из которых Карло был шестым.

Венеция — родина Карло Гоцци

Главную роль в семье играл старший брат Карло, поэт и журналист Гаспаро Гоцци. Все прочие члены семьи также сочиняли стихи, импровизировали комедии, которые ставились на домашней сцене. Карло вынужден был заниматься спасением остатков родового имущества. В течение ряда лет он вёл переговоры с многочисленными кредиторами, ростовщиками и финансистами, адвокатами и судьями.

В этих трудных жизненных обстоятельствах Гоцци решил остаться холостым, дорожа своей независимостью и не желая «произвести на свет целый выводок маленьких Гоцци, которые все оказались бы нищими». Свой досуг он целиком посвятил любимому занятию художественной литературой.

Аристократ Гоцци писал для своего удовольствия и для прославления итальянского языка и литературы. Он даже не брал гонораров за свои стихи и пьесы, которые писал для театральной труппы Сакки. Драматург писал сонеты, героические и комические поэмы, сатиры, сказочные и бытовые комедии, трактаты и памфлеты. Большинство этих произведений после смерти Гоцци не переиздавалось и в настоящее время забыто.

Вместе с братом Гаспаро он нашел единомышленников в лице участников шуточной академии Гранеллески (от «grano» — «зерно», «чепуха»), основанной в 1747 году. Целью членов Гранеллески стало сохранение национальных традиций в поэзии, возрождение первоначальной чистоты итальянского языка. Деятельность академии имела во многом буффонадный, пародийный характер. Авторы издавали летучие листки с аллегориями, колкими сатирами и эпиграммами.

Гоцци, самый активный сочинитель этих трудов, основной мишенью своих сатирических стрел избрал двух популярнейших тогда в Венеции драматургов – Карло Гольдони и аббата Пьетро Кьяри. Гоцци упрекал их в ложном пафосе, игнорировании народных традиций и бездумном копировании модных иностранных образцов. Драматург считал комедию дель арте лучшим, что дала Венеция театральному искусству.

Итальянский драматург Карло Гольдони (1707 — 1793)

Литературная полемика Гоцци с Гольдони и Кьяри продолжалась несколько лет и привела к решению сразиться с соперниками на литературном поприще. 25 января 1761 года в дни зимнего карнавала труппа актёров театра «Сан Самуэле» представила венецианской публике первую пьесу Карла Гоцци «Любовь к трем апельсинам». Волшебство, шутки, пародии, зрелищные эффекты этого сказочного спектакля привели зрителей в восторг.

Жанр, в основе которого лежит народная сказка, в котором причудливо смешиваются комическое и трагическое, получил название фьяба. В течение пяти лет Гоцци пишет ещё девять театральных сказок-фьяб: «Ворон», «Король-олень», «Турандот», «Женщина-змея», «Зобеида», «Счастливые нищие», «Синее чудовище», «Зеленая птичка», «Дзеим, король духов».

За сравнительно короткий срок фьяба исчерпала себя, к тому же, постановка пьес требовала больших затрат на декорации, костюмы, сценические эффекты, что оказалось не под силу безденежным венецианским театрам. «Пусть уж лучше публика тоскует по подобного рода представлениям, чем скучает на них», — заявил Гоцци и перешел к писанию комедий «плаща и шпаги» в испанском духе.

Кроме пьес, писатель оставил после себя «Бесполезные мемуары» (полное название «Бесполезные воспоминания о жизни Карло Гоцци, написанные им самим и им же со смирением опубликованные»).

Блистательный венецианский драматург, без имени которого сегодня немыслима итальянская и мировая литература, умер в родной Венеции 4 апреля 1806 года в возрасте восьмидесяти пяти лет.

Церковь Сан Кассиано в Венеции, где похоронен Карло Гоцци

Сюжеты сказок Карло Гоцци послужили источником вдохновения для многих театров мира и известных композиторов. Среди них — опера Рихарда  Вагнера «Феи» (по сказке «Женщина-змея»), опера «Турандот» Джакомо Пуччини, опера Сергея Прокофьева «Любовь к трем апельсинам». По произведению Гоцци «Король-олень» написана одноименная опера современного немецкого композитора Ханса Вернера Хенце.

В России Гоцци явился нам в переводах драматурга А.Н. Островского. В 1922 году руководитель Студенческой драматической студии Евгений Вахтангов осуществил постановку одной из самых известных пьес Карло Гоцци «Турандот».

В 1958 году советским режиссером Александром Роу был снят детский фильм-сказка «Новые похождения Кота в сапогах» по мотивам сказки Шарля Перро «Кот в сапогах» и пьесы Гоцци «Любовь к трем апельсинам». В 1969 году на киностудии им. Горького был снят фильм «Король-олень» по одноимённой пьесе Карло Гоцци.

ЧАСТЬ II. ТЕАТРАЛЬНО-МУЗЫКАЛЬНОЕ РЕВЮ «ТУРАНДОТ» — ВОЛШЕБНАЯ СКАЗКА ДЛЯ ВЗРОСЛЫХ»

«Кто только взглянет на ее портрет,
Тот в сердце чувствует такую силу,
Что ради подлинника будет слепо
Стремиться к смерти …»

Наиболее известной фьябой Гоцци считается «Турандот, принцесса Китайская», премьера которой состоялась на подмостках венецианского театра «Сан Самуэле» в 1762 году.

Фабулу для своей сказочной трагикомедии о прекрасной, но жестокосердной принцессе Карло Гоцци заимствовал из поэмы «Семь красавиц» классика персидской поэзии XII века Низами. В начале XVIII века на сюжет поэмы обратил внимание французский драматург Ален-Рене Лесаж, чья пьеса «Китайская принцесса» с успехом была поставлена в парижском Ярмарочном театре в 1729 году.

Памятник персидскому поэту Низами в Москве
Французский писатель Ален Рене Лессаж (1668 — 1747)

В предисловии к своей «наполовину серьезной, наполовину шутливой» сказке Гоцци писал, что она обставлена  «всеми невероятными  перипетиями,  с которыми читателю предстоит познакомиться, при незначительном участии  доблестных  масок и без всяких чудесных появлений и превращений». Гоцци нарисовал в своей пьесе яркий, сильный характер свободолюбивой девушки, всеми силами души про­тестующей против униженного, рабского положения, в ко­тором находятся женщины в ее стране. 

По сюжету, умная и своевольная дочь китайского императора Альтоума отказывается выходить замуж, считая, что все мужчины «коварны, сердцем лживы, не способны любить». Чтобы избежать ненавистных уз брака и не гневить отца, который из-за нее вел много войн, Турандот выдвигает свои условия. Она выйдет замуж только за того, кто разгадает три ее загадки. Если претендент на ее руку и сердце не справится с заданием, — он будет обезглавлен.

Многие влюбленные в Турандот поплатились жизнью за свою страсть к неземной красоте принцессы. Ногайский принц Калаф, тайно прибывший в Пекин, ослеплен красотой дочери Сына Неба и вынужден принять условия жестокой игры: «Загадок будет три — смерть одна!» — заявляет Турандот. «Загадок будет три — жизнь одна!» — гордо отвечает ей Калаф.

Отважный Калаф победил в словесном поединке с неприступной красавицей. Турандот была готова расстаться с жизнью, считая победу Калафа оскорблением своему уму и сердцу. Но постепенно Турандот чувствует, что ее неприязнь к чужестранцу исчезает, уступая место зарождающейся большой любви.

Яркость характеров, сила страстей, острота конфликта — таковы черты, делающие «Турандот» шедевром драматур­гии Карло Гоцци, первым наброском романтической драмы в Италии.

Образ Турандот покорил немецкого драматурга Фридриха Шиллера, одного из предводителей литературного движения «Буря и натиск». Он обработал пьесу Гоцци и придал этому образу патетические черты, приглушив игровое начало, свойственное комедии дель арте.

Немецкий драматург Фридрих Шиллер (1759 — 1805)

Шиллеровская версия «Турандот» дала творческий импульс итальянскому композитору Джакомо Пуччини для создания одноименной оперы. Этот неоконченный музыкальный шедевр стал лебединой песней Пуччини. Композитор не дописал финальный дуэт Турандот и Калафа, который был закончен его другом Франко Альфано.

Композитор Джакомо Пуччини (1858 -1924)

Лучшей исполнительницей партии Турандот считается Мария Каллас. Эта сложнейшая оперная партия была у великой греческой певицы самой любимой.

Мария Каллас (1923 — 1977)

В СССР грандиозным успехом пользовалась «Принцесса Турандот» в постановке режиссера Е.Б. Вахтангова (1922), где главную роль исполняла Ц.Л. Мансурова. Импровизированный дух комедии дель арте привнес в спектакль атмосферу праздничной театральности, изящества и веселья.

Евгений Багратионович Вахтангов (1883 — 1922)

«Принцесса Турандот», которая стала последней постановкой молодого режиссера, имела феноменальный успех. Константин Станиславский после одной из репетиций, зная о болезни своего любимого ученика, сказал ему: «Вы можете заснуть победителем». Евгений Вахтангов не дожил до премьеры своего главного спектакля несколько недель …

Постановка «Принцессы Турандот» 1922 года

В 1963 году советский режиссер Рубен Симонов возобновил «Турандот» с лучшими силами нового поколения артистов – Юлией Борисовой, Николаем Гриценко, Михаилом Ульяновым, Юрием Яковлевым, Людмилой Максаковой, Василием Лановым. На долгие годы этот спектакль стал визитной карточкой Государственного академического театра имени Евгения Вахтангова.

Турандот (Ю.К. Борисова) и Калаф (В.С. Лановой)

В 2017 году в московском музыкальном театре «Геликон-опера» с большим успехом прошел спектакль «Турандот» по одноименной опере Джакомо Пуччини (режиссер Д. Бертман, дирижер народный артист СССР В.И. Федосеев). Премьера спектакля состоялась в рамках крупнейшего за всю историю театра интернационального проекта «Евразийская опера».

МАТЕРИЛ ПОДГОТОВИЛИ КАШТАНОВА Л.А. И БЕЛЕНКО М.А.

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