ВИРТУАЛЬНЫЕ ЧТЕНИЯ «МИРОВАЯ ПОЭЗИЯ В ПЕРЕВОДАХ БУНИНА» (к 150-летию со дня рождения русского поэта и прозаика)

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22 октября 2020 года исполняется 150 лет со дня рождения русского поэта и прозаика Ивана Алексеевича Бунина. Чистота языка, отчетливость образов и цельность композиции — все эти черты мастерства присущи Бунину и делают его произведения литературными образцами классического русского реализма.

Первый среди русских писателей лауреат Нобелевской премии по литературе, почётный академик Петербургской академии наук Иван Бунин родился 22 октября 1870 года в Воронеже в многодетной семье отставного офицера, участника обороны Севастополя. К старинному дворянскому роду Буниных, известному с XV века, принадлежал и поэт-романтик Василий Жуковский.

Портрет Василия Андреевича Жуковского (1783 — 1852)

К концу 1890-х годов Бунин, которому нет ещё и тридцати, — общепризнанный писатель. Особую славу ему приносит рассказ «Антоновские яблоки». За вышедший в 1901 году лирический сборник «Листопад» и перевод поэмы «Песнь о Гайавате» американского поэта Генри Лонгфелло Бунин был удостоен Пушкинской премии, самой престижной литературной премии России в то время.

В 1900-е годы Бунин интересуется социальной проблематикой и отходит от лирической прозы. Итогом авторских исканий становится глубокое исследование проблем русской деревни (повести «Деревня» и «Суходол»). Дальнейшими темами бунинской прозы становятся трагическая любовь и философские размышления о смысле бытия (рассказы «Чаша жизни», «Грамматика любви», «Лёгкое дыхание», «Господин из Сан-Франциско», «Сны Чанга»).

Писатель крайне враждебно отнёсся к Февральской буржуазной и Великой Октябрьской революциям 1917 года. Свои впечатления от событий революции и гражданской войны Бунин отразил в неоднозначной книге «Окаянные дни». В эмиграции его произведения по-прежнему связаны с Россией: повесть «Митина любовь», роман «Жизнь Арсеньева», сборник рассказов «Тёмные аллеи», который сам Бунин признавал «лучшим и оригинальным» из всего, что было им написано. 

В 1933 году И.А. Бунину была присуждена Нобелевская премия по литературе «за строгий артистический талант, с которым он воссоздал в литературной прозе типичный русский характер». Бунин писал: «… Новые приветственные телеграммы чуть не из всех стран мира – отовсюду, кроме России!».

И.А. Бунин — Нобелевский лауреат

В 1946 году советское правительство издало постановление о восстановлении гражданства всем бывшим подданным Российской империи. Бунин даже встречался с советским послом во Франции, а также с писателем Константином Симоновым. Но на родину он так и не вернулся … 

Иван Алексеевич Бунин умер 8 ноября 1953 года в восемьдесят три года. Перед смертью, тяжелобольной писатель сделал последнюю запись в своём дневнике: «Это всё-таки поразительно до столбняка! Через некоторое очень малое время меня не будет – и дела и судьбы всего, всего будут мне неизвестны!». Жена Бунина, находившаяся с ним до последней минуты, вспоминала, что писатель перед уходом попросил почитать ему письма Чехова …

Памятник И. Бунину в Воронеже

БУНИН-ПЕРЕВОДЧИК

И.А. Бунин является не только  талантливым русским писателем, но и одним из замечательных переводчиков зарубежной поэзии. Более тридцати лет своей жизни писатель посвятил переводу произведений иностранной литературы на наш родной язык.

Для переводов Бунина характерно совершенное чувство стиля, бережное отношение к русскому слову, скрупулезная работа над художественным текстом. В своем творчестве русский писатель был непримирим к  напыщенности, вульгарности и фальши. Главной целью своей переводческой деятельности Бунин видел в воссоздании текста, который вызывал те же чувства, что и оригинал.

Еще в ранней юности будущий писатель увлекся английской поэзией. Особую роль в самостоятельном изучении английского языка сыграла шекспировская трагедия «Гамлет». Шекспир для Бунина был одним из неприкасаемых авторитетов в литературе, а незавершенный им перевод «Гамлета» остается одной из интереснейших страниц истории отечественной словесности.

Английский поэт и драматург Уильям Шекспир (1564 — 1616)

Работа над переводом драмы Шекспира целиком поглотила молодого писателя. Сам Бунин так вспоминал об этом опыте, находясь в эмиграции: «Я, Бог весть, почему и зачем, затеял тогда перевод «Гамлета» и мучил себя над ним с необыкновенным и все возраставшим наслаждением».

Иллюстрация к трагедии Шекспира «Гамлет»

Возможно, Бунин преувеличивал «случайность» своего выбора. Редко кто из начинающих поэтов выбирает для первого перевода с английского языка одно из сложнейших произведений мировой литературы. В 1912 году в интервью, приуроченному к 25-летию литературной деятельности, Бунин говорил: «Навсегда же кумирами моими остались Гёте, Гомер, Пушкин, «Гамлет» Шекспира, Данте, Флобер и Толстой …».

Бунин с увлечением переводил и других известных зарубежных поэтов: Петрарку, Гейне, Мицкевича, Теннисона, Мура, Байрона, Лонгфелло, Мюссе, Верхарна. Также он занимался переложением украинской, армянской, татарской, еврейской поэзии. По подстрочнику Бунин переводил с бенгальского языка Рабиндраната Тагора, с персидского — Саади.

Индийский писатель и общественный деятель
Рабиндранат Тагор (1861 — 1941)
Классик персидской литературы Саади (1210 — 1292)

Некоторые переводы Ивана Бунина считаются шедеврами русской поэзии. Это относится, прежде всего, к поэме американского писателя Генри Уодсворта Лонгфелло «Песнь о Гайавате» («The Song of Hiawatha»). До сих пор бунинский перевод «Гайаваты» на русский язык считается лучшим и непревзойденным.

Генри Уодсворт Лонгфелло (1807 — 1882)

При работе над «Песней о Гайавате», созданной на основе древних легенд североамериканских индейцев, Бунин писал: «Я всюду старался держаться возможно ближе к подлиннику, сохранить простоту и музыкальность речи, сравнения и эпитеты, характерные повторения слов …».

Бунин получил письмо от Уильяма Ричарда Морфиля — известного английского переводчика и слависта,  профессора Оксфордского университета, в котором тот писал о «большом таланте» Бунина-пейзажиста и признал перевод «Гайаваты» «точным и сладкозвучным». Современники поэта отмечали, что, работая над поэмой, Бунин не только продемонстрировал свободное владение иностранным языком, но и достиг совершенного владения русским стихосложением.

В одном из писем в марте 1895 года он писал: «…я ведь помешан на Гайавате, — я ведь с самого детства сплю и вижу перевести всю эту дивную песню, и издать ее, и любоваться, и сотни раз самому перечитывать ее, если не будет читателей». Бунин хотел, чтобы перевод был высокопоэтическим, чтобы чувствовался «запах первобытных лесов».

Перевод «Песни о Гайавате» — лишь небольшая часть от всего богатого и многообразного наследия Ивана Алексеевича Бунина. Надо ценить и беречь его.

Г.У. ЛОНГФЕЛЛО. ИЗ ВСТУПЛЕНИЯ К «ПЕСНЕ О ГАЙАВАТЕ» (НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ И РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКАХ)

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. The Song of Hiawatha (1855)

Should you ask me, whence these stories? 
Whence these legends and traditions, 
With the odors of the forest 
With the dew and damp of meadows,
With the curling smoke of wigwams,
With the rushing of great rivers,
With their frequent repetitions,
And their wild reverberations
As of thunder in the mountains?
  I should answer, I should tell you,

«From the forests and the prairies,
From the great lakes of the Northland,
From the land of the Ojibways,
From the land of the Dacotahs,
From the mountains, moors, and fen-lands
Where the heron, the Shuh-shuh-gah,
Feeds among the reeds and rushes.
I repeat them as I heard them
From the lips of Nawadaha,
The musician, the sweet singer».

 Should you ask where Nawadaha
Found these songs so wild and wayward,
Found these legends and traditions,
I should answer, I should tell you,
«In the bird’s-nests of the forest,
In the lodges of the beaver,
In the hoof-prints of the bison,
In the eyry of the eagle!  

«All the wild-fowl sang them to him,
In the moorlands and the fen-lands,
In the melancholy marshes;
Chetowaik, the plover, sang them,
Mahng, the loon, the wild-goose, Wawa,
The blue heron, the Shuh-shuh-gah,
And the grouse, the Mushkodasa!»

Генри Уодсворт Лонгфелло. Песня о Гайавате

Если спросите — откуда
Эти сказки и легенды
С их лесным благоуханьем,
Влажной свежестью долины,
Голубым дымком вигвамов,
Шумом рек и водопадов,
Шумом, диким и стозвучным,
Как в горах раскаты грома? —
Я скажу вам, я отвечу:

«От лесов, равнин пустынных,
От озер Страны Полночной,
Из страны Оджибуэев,
Из страны Дакотов диких,
С гор и тундр, с болотных топей,
Где среди осоки бродит
Цапля сизая, Шух-шух-га.
Повторяю эти сказки,
Эти старые преданья
По напевам сладкозвучным
Музыканта Навадаги».

Если спросите, где слышал,
Где нашел их Навадага, —
Я скажу вам, я отвечу:
«В гнездах певчих птиц, по рощам,
На прудах, в норах бобровых,
На лугах, в следах бизонов,
На скалах, в орлиных гнездах.

Эти песни раздавались
На болотах и на топях,
В тундрах севера печальных:
Читовэйк, зуек, там пел их,
Манг, нырок, гусь дикий, Вава,
Цапля сизая, Шух-шух-га,
И глухарка, Мушкодаза».

МАТЕРИАЛ ПОДГОТОВИЛА КАШТАНОВА Л.А.

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    {ยังคง | ยังคงเป็น | ยังคงอยู่

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  45. Obtaining ชอบ คือง่าย รวม ชอบ
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    บริการ ให้กับ แต่ละ iOS และ
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